Black holes are no longer thought of as just a mathematical artifact. It seems hard to believe that they don’t exist, now that the idea has been popularized so much. Black holes aren’t just something theoretical and multiple instances suggest so. After all, gravitational waves observed here on Earth were generated when two black holes collided. Black holes as astronomical objects certainly do exist but the way we imagine them to be might be different. To be quite honest, black holes are something we still don’t quite understand, what with all the quantum gravity issues we haven’t gotten solved yet. So here are five awesome alternatives.
So what are wormholes really? It is for lazy ass**** who keep looking for shortcuts everywhere. No, for real, wormholes are these passages through space-time that could create shortcuts for long journeys across the universe. It has a spheroidal opening on two ends and a throat. They are thought to be the extensions of a black hole, because at the end of a black hole is a singularity, which is a huge mess for all the physicists. The presence of another end makes black holes palatable. The idea of something going in a hole forever doesn’t make sense. So, according to physicists, it must come out of somewhere, and wormholes are how.
Now, one can argue that gravitational waves we detected with LIGO were real. The gravitational waves we received here on Earth were due to the collision of two massive black holes. Fair point, but here’s the catch. Two scientists in Belgium and Spain (yes, they do more than just making chocolates and playing football) calculated the waves produced by two spinning wormholes and they were eerily similar to those produced by black holes.
So, wormholes might soon worm their way in as the best explained theory for what we call a black hole today!
If you are a fan of string theory, this one is for you. Before we go into it, we need to address the two biggest problems associated with black holes. Firstly, no matter what fell into it, the composition would remain just the same. This is famously known as information paradox. The quantum information of the falling matter entirely disappears into singularity. Now, this is something that physics doesn’t allow. Secondly, singularity. Singularity is a massive problem, which we addressed earlier in the article. Universe abhors infinities and zeroes, so, physicists introduced fuzzballs to explain the phenomenon of a black hole.
Singularity, which is this powerful infinite space time curvature formed due to infinitely intense gravitational field from a region of zero volume, is replaced by, well, fuzzballs. So, if you were to fall into it, the strings of your atomic structure will combine with other strings to form an exact replica of you! Fuzzy happy feeling, eh?
Think of a transparent jelly- blob ball for a star. Sure, it would emit no light, but will still have a large gravitational pull. Hold up, am I talking about a black hole?! Could be. Well, that jelly blob is Bose-Einstein Condensate and it has been made here, on Earth. So according to scientists, Boson stars can behave just like blackholes. Then, maybe black holes do not exist at all!
Collision of two boson stars will also produce the same effect as two backholes colliding. Event horizon Telescope is sending data back to scientists and they might just get a picture of this boson star. But here’s the catch: We can see the matter at the center of it, which doesn’t happen with blackholes… So is there an alternative explanation for this phenomenon? Write it down in the comment section if you know!
Gravastar actually stands for Gravitational vacuum condensate star. We don’t really know what they’re made of. Gravastars are thought to form from a collapsing star. However, the only difference is, when it starts collapsing, the matter turns into exotic matter, which is a euphemism for “we don’t know what it is”. What is even worse, is the fact that theories do not converge with experiment, which makes it even less likely to exist, let alone be an alternative explanation for a blackhole.
Magnetospheric Eternally Collapsing Objects
Black holes are essentially formed when large amounts of matter start collapsing inward toward a single point. In the theoretical model, this is pretty much how even Magnetospheric Eternally Collapsing Objects, AKA MECO are formed. A MECO can even carry electric and magnetic properties, has a finite size, can carry angular momentum and rotate.
When the collapsing object gets super dense and hot (like many people), the radiation it produces creates outward pressure that prevents its collapse, leaving it as a hot ball of plasma rather than a black hole. Definite proof is still a long shot, so we can’t really say anything right now!
But, as scientific human beings, we must always keep an open mind. We have been accustomed to the idea of a black hole even though we are not completely informed about them. Even though these theories seem hard to digest, we must try to because it’s a big universe, anything can happen(Except for things that physics doesn’t allow, but Physics is a darling)
Tell us which theory seems most plausible to you and read more such articles at TechQuila– Your daily shot of tech
Nice write up. I must say physics really intrigues me.
If Einstein hadn’t tricked us with his mathematics as expressed in his 1905 paper, there would never have been black holes and whatnot!
See the proof of the mathematical trickery in chapter XXX “Special Theory of Relativity based on fraudulent Science” in https://vixra.org/pdf/2107.0027v4.pdf